วันพฤหัสบดีที่ 17 พฤษภาคม พ.ศ. 2550
This is an anthropometric study of the foot shape of 23 school girls of Northern Kyushu. They live in Kitakyushu City and its suburbs. Their parents are descendants of people of Fukuoka Prefecture. While there was no significant difference regarding the foot-length among these school girls and the other two groups of farm workers who lived in the rural areas of Northern Kyushu about two decades ago, these school girls had the narrowest feet with the smallest foot-index (a ratio of the foot-breadth to the foot-length) and the tallest stature. These physical features may be considered to be the result of the urban life and the differences of generation.
PMID: 4070886 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMID: 4070886 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
วันจันทร์ที่ 14 พฤษภาคม พ.ศ. 2550
Gravure idols (gurabia aidoru?) are Japanese models who often pose in bikinis and other provocative clothing for photo spreads in magazines aimed largely at men. The Gravure Idol Academy for Girls is a show based on a School for Japanese Schoolgirls… yes, the fetish type. Allegedly these types of schools exist in Japan, and the show popularizes the idea. However, I think it is more bizarre to see that the concept of this show is something that apparently fits well in Japanese culture. The show features talk segments, fortune telling, and - of course - behind-the-scene shots of gravure photo shoots. Bizarre. In Japanese, gravure can actually refer to any type of glamour (not fashion) modelling - hence nude or non-nude can be considered gravure-style photography. However, the defacto standard is that gravure idols don't do nudity or porn. (japundit)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Japan introduced Western-style school uniforms in the late 19th century as a part of its modernisation program. Today, school uniforms are almost universal in the public and private school systems. They are also used in some women's colleges. The Japanese word for uniform is seifuku (制服, seifuku?).
3 Sailor outfit
4 Cultural significance
5 See also
In many areas, elementary school students are not required to wear a uniform to school. Where uniforms are required, many boys wear white shirts, shorts, and caps. The uniform codes may vary by season to work with the environment and occasion; young boys often dress more formally in their class pictures than they do other days of the school year. Girls' uniforms might include a grey pleated skirt and white blouse. Both boys and girls wear brightly coloured caps to prevent traffic accidents.These are common in all schools.
The Japanese junior and senior high school uniform traditionally consists of a military style uniform for boys and a sailor outfit for girls. These uniforms are based on Meiji era formal military dress, themselves modelled on European-style naval uniforms. While this style of uniform is still in use, many schools have moved into more western pattern parochial school uniform styles. These uniforms consist of a white shirt, tie, blazer with school crest and dress trousers (often not of the same colour as the blazer) for boys and a white blouse, tie, blazer with school crest and tartan skirt for girls.
Regardless of what type of uniform any particular school assigns its students, all schools have a summer version of the uniform (usually consisting of just a white dress shirt and the uniform slacks for boys and a reduced-weight traditional uniform or blouse and tartan skirt with tie for girls) and a sports activity uniform (a polyester track suit for year-round use and a t-shirt and shorts for summer activities). Depending on the discipline level of any particular school, students may often wear different seasonal and activity uniforms within the same classroom during the day. Individual students may attempt to subvert the system of uniforms by wearing their uniforms incorrectly or by adding prohibited elements such as large loose socks or badges. Girls may shorten their skirts; boys may wear trousers about the hips, omit ties, or keep their shirts unbuttoned.
Since some schools do not have sex segregated changing- or locker-rooms, students may change for sporting activities in their classrooms. As a result, such students may wear their sports uniforms under their classroom uniforms. Certain schools also regulate student hairstyles, footwear and book bags, but these particular rules are usually adhered to only on special occasions such as trimester opening and closing ceremonies and school photo days.
The gakuran (学ラン, gakuran?) or the tsume-eri (詰め襟, tsume-eri?) are the uniforms for many middle school and high school boys in Japan. The color is normally black, but some schools use navy and dark blue as well.
The top has a standing collar buttoning down from top-to-bottom. Buttons are usually decorated with the school emblem. Pants are straight leg and are one color, and a black or dark-colored belt is worn with them. Boys usually wear penny loafers or sneakers with this uniform. Some schools may require the students to wear collar-pins representing the school and/or class rank. In manga and anime, the gakuran of protagonists or tough-guy ("Yankee") characters may be notably different, with a distinctly lengthened or shortened jacket, or a distinctive color. Some students in gangs are likely to wear them along with a tokko fuku (特攻服, Special Attack Uniform) if they are of high rank in the gang.
The second button of the top of a male's uniform is often given away to the female in love with him, and is considered a way of confession. Other buttons may be given away if more than one girl asks.
Traditionally, the gakuran is also worn along with a matching (usually black) student cap, although this custom is less common in modern times. Jotaro Kujo from the manga JoJo's Bizarre Adventure wears a more decorated and worn-out version of this cap as a form of rebellion.
The Gakuran is derived from Prussian army uniforms. The term is a combination of gaku (学) meaning "study" or "student", and ran (ラン or 蘭) meaning Holland or, historically in Japan, the West in general; thus, gakuran translates as "Western student (uniform)". Such clothing was also worn by school children in South Korea and pre-1949 China.
 Sailor outfit
Japanese junior high school students in sailor outfits
The sailor outfit (セーラー服, sērā-fuku?) is a common style of uniform worn by female middle school and high school students, and occasionally, elementary school students. It was introduced as a school uniform in 1921 by the principal of Fukuoka Jo Gakuin University (福岡女学院, Fukuoka Jo Gakuin University?), Elizabeth Lee. It was modelled after the uniform used by the British Royal Navy at the time, which Lee had experienced as an exchange student in the United Kingdom.
Much like the male uniform, the gakuran, the sailor outfit bears a similarity to various military styled naval uniforms. The uniform generally consists of a blouse attached with a sailor-style collar and a pleated skirt. There are seasonal variations for summer and winter: sleeve length and fabric are adjusted accordingly. A ribbon is tied in the front and laced through a loop attached to the blouse. Several variations on the ribbon include neckties, bolo ties, neckerchiefs, and bows. Common colours are navy blue, white, grey, light green and black.
Shoes, socks, and other accessories are sometimes included as part of the uniform. These socks are typically navy or white. The shoes are typically brown or black penny loafers. Although not part of the prescribed uniform, loose socks are also commonly matched by more fashionable girls with their sailor outfits.
 Cultural significance
The school uniform is an established part of Japanese life with various schools being known for their particular uniforms. The sailor outfit has a nostalgic characteristic for former students, and is often associated with relatively carefree youth. Imitation sailor outfits are a popular style of costume for Halloween and other party events, and are available at department stores and costume shops throughout Japan.
In general, the uniform is seen by some youth as a symbol of conformity, but is modified by rebellious students as a means of exhibiting individualism. Such variations include lengthening or shortening the skirt, rolling up the sleeves, removing the ribbon, hiding patches or badges under the collar, etc. In past decades, brightly coloured variants of the sailor outfit were also adopted by Japanese yankee and Bōsōzoku biker gangs.
Because school uniforms are a popular fetish item, second-hand sailor outfits and other items of school wear are brokered through underground establishments known as burusera, although changes to Japanese law have made such practices difficult. Sailor outfits, along with other styles of school uniform, play an undeniably large role in otaku culture and the Japanese sexual canon as evidenced by the large amount of anime, manga, and dōjinshi featuring characters in uniform.
Stylised school uniforms are prominent in the popular Japanese comics Sailor Moon, Cardcaptor Sakura, Kodocha, Lucky Star, Zatch Bell! and InuYasha (as worn by Kagome Higurashi). The Tekken video game characters Asuka Kazama, Ling Xiaoyu and Miharu Hirano all wear school uniforms.
Gogo Yubari, an assassin from the movie Kill Bill, is famous for wearing a school uniform. "Sailor Fuku o Nugasanaide" was a popular song by the Onyanko Club in the 1980s.
All versions of Battle Royale include school uniforms. The novel and manga versions feature sailor uniforms (boys wear black gakurans and girls wear blue sailor suits), while the film version features parochial-style Western uniforms. Two of the students participating in the plot are transfer students from different schools; one wears a black gakuran while the other wears a blue gakuran. The sailor uniform is seen once in the film, when a survivor from another school is seen on a television.